India Across the Ages
South India   North India
Punjab Sindhu Gujarata Maratha Dravida Utkala Vanga Vindhya Himachal Yamuna Ganga Punjab Sindhu Gujarata Maratha Dravida Utkala      Vanga Vindhya Himachal Yamuna Ganga
  3300 Indus Valley: Ravi Phase     Bronze Age         Late Indo-European (IE) people   Kurgan (Pit Grave) Culture
Legends 3200      
RED: World Heritage Site 3100           Indo-European Language
BLUE: Art, Literature, Science, Religion or Socio-Cultural Renaissance 3000 Mohenjodaro City      
GOLDEN: Emergence of Pan-India or Golden Age 2900 Long Distance Voyage with Mesopotamia          
              2800     Indo-Iranian (IIr.) people Separated from IE (Hut Grave)
2700s: Beginning of Dynasty/Age marked in RED bar           2700s: Beginning of Dynasty/Age marked in BLUE bar 2700 City States (Sumer) , Old Kingdom (Egypt) & Elam (Iran)          
2600s: Beginning of Dynasty/Age marked in GREEN bar           2600: Important Highlights of same Dynasty marked in BLUE 2600 Mature Harappan Phase      
2500s: Important Highlights of same Dynasty marked in GREEN           2500s: Beginning of Dynasty/Age marked in VIOLET bar 2500 Elamo-Dravidian Language         Centum-Satem division complete  IIr. a Satem language
              2400 First dock at Lothal      
              2300 Prominence of Babylon          
  2200     Non IIr. BMAC in Central Asia &  IIr. Andronovo Culture
  2000     Indo-Aryan & Iranian breakup (The Aryan Trail)
              1900 Prominence of Ashur (Assyria)         Early Andronovo people in BMAC
  1800     Later Andronovo people in BMAC
              1700 Decline of Indus Valley   Spreading of Natives India-wide         Aryan migration to Swat & Syria Decline of BMAC
  1600       Remnants of Indo-Aryans in Gandhara Graves
              1500 Start of Aryan/Vedic Age            Earliest Vedas: Rig Veda         Ochre Colored Pottery Culture
  1400 Origin of Indian Music    
              1300 Probable Mahabharata War          
  1200 Settlements outside Punjab Prominence of Kuru Kingdom       Black & Red Ware Culture
              1100 Atharva Veda mentions Iron   Beginning of Iron Age          
  1000 Eastward expansion of Aryans Use of Iron: Impact of Plough          
              900 Prominence of Panchala         Painted Grey Ware Culture
  800 Kasi, Kosala & Videha          
              700 Earliest Upanishad         Age of 16 Mahajanapadas           Democratic Republican States
  600 Mahabharata, Ramayana Panini's Sanskrit Grammer       Silver coins: Magadha & Kosala
              500 Mahavira: Rise of Jainism Gautam: Rise of Buddhism         University of Taxila   Bimbisar: 1st Historical King
            400         Magadha: New center of power Prominence of Pataliputra
Sangama Chera Dynasty           Sangama Chola Dynasty 300 1st Pan India Maurya Empire Chankya's Arthashastra         Porus fights with Alexander        Rise of Chandragupta-Chanakya
Pallava Dynasty         Sangama Pandya Dynasty    Oldest Tamil Grammer 200 Kalinga War: Ashoka's Rise Sachi, Bodhgaya Temples     Start of Satavahana Empire
            100 End of Maurya Dynasty               Rise of Sungas: Magadha         Ajanta Cave Painting 1st Phase
        0 BC Vikramaditya of Malwa, Avanti VikramSamvat Era: 57 BC       Invasion by Sakas                  Ujjain: Prime Meridian of India
          Ambassadors to Greek, Rome 0 AD Kushan Empire: Kanishka            Charak in Kanishka's Court         Start of Western Satraps(Sakas) Saka Era: 78 AD
            100 Monasteries at Takht-i-Bahi Gandhra Art Flourishes          
            Tamil Dark Age: Kalabhras         End of Tamil Sangama Age 200 Bamiyan Buddha         Vakataka Dynasty
Kadamba: 1st Kannada Rule             300 2nd Pan India Gupta Empire Golden Age: Art/Science/Lit        
              400 Vikramaditya's Nava Ratna Nalanda University       Ajanta Cave Painting 2ndPhase
Badami Chalukya Kingdom             500 Hun Invasion: Fall of Guptas Brahmagupta Born       Pratihara: 1st Rajput Kingdom Prominence of Kanauj
Chalukyan Architecture   Pulakeshi II defeats Harsha           Revival: Pallava Golden Age Mahabalipuram ShoreTemples 600 Harshavardhana's Rule     Attempt to unify North India         Kingdom covers Central/North 
Temples at Pattadakal           Adi Shankaracharya 700 Democratic election of Gopala Pala Empire: North/East     Defends 1st Mulsim attack
Rashtrakuta Kingdom       Kannada Literature flourishes             800 Origin of Bengali language Somapura Mahavihara         Conflict with Pala & Rashtrakuta Kanauj Triange
Elephanta/Ellora Caves             900 Chandela Rajput Kingdom: West/Central (Bundelkhand)         Rise of Chauhans, Paramaras       Rise of Solanki (Gujarata)
Western Chalukya Kingdom           Chola Golden Age: Rajaraja   Great Living Temples of Cholas 1000 Khajurao Monuments             Chauhans: Ruler of Delhi         Eastern Ganga Dynasty (Orissa)
Bhaskaracharya           Hoysala gains prominence Temples of Belur/Halebidu 1100 Rise & Fall of Prithviraj Chauhan Md. Ghor ruler of Delhi          
Kakatiya Kingdom: Andhra  Yadava Kingdom: Karnataka           Pandya Golden Period  Jatavarman Sundara Pandya 1200 Delhi Sultanate: Slave Dynasty Qutb-ud-din-Aybak: Qutb Minar         Konark Sun Temple
          Beginning of Vijaynagar Empire Golden Age of Carnatic Music 1300 Khilji & Tughlaq Dynasti          Amir Khusro's Music       Bengal Sultanate of Pathans  Krittibasi Bengali Ramayana
Bahamani Sultanate peaks  Breaks into 5 Deccan Sultanates             1400 Sayyid &  Lodi Dynasties      Bhakti Cult: Kabir & Nanak         Semi Independent for centuries  Trade flourishes
Prominence of Deccan Sultanates  Unitedly fight Vijaynagar     Peak: Krsihna Deva Raya Monuments at Hampi 1500 Babur: Mughal Empire starts Humayun: Humayun's Tomb         Akbar: 3rd Pan India Empire  Nava Ratna, Fatehpur Sikri
Falls to Mughals gradually  Shivaji takes most of Bijapur           Falls to Bijapur Sultanate    Gradual independence of Mysore 1600 ShahJahan: TajMahal RedFort Shalimar Gardens, Thatta         Maratha Empire: Shivaji     Mughals fight Shikhs/Marathas
Mysore: Rise of Hyder Ali/Tipu     Nizam of Hyderabad 1700 Gradual Decline of Mughals         Maratha peaks under Peshwas
Tipu/Mysore falls to East India           Remains friendly to Company 1750 Mirza Ghalib Born         Battle of Plassey: Company Rule
Company consolidates in South         Wodeyar becomes Mysore King 1800 Ranjit Singh's Shikh Empire         Bengal Rennaissance
British Rule & Princely States           Remains friendly to British 1850 Rise of Indian Nationalism         Sepoy Mutiny: British Rule
India's Independence           Nizam, Mysore join India 1900 Gandhi's Nonviolence         India's Independence
Congress Rule & Emergency            Dravidian & Regional Politics 1950 Congress Rule & Emergency          Terrorism, Green Revolution
Mission to Moon   Path to economic super power 2000 Mission to Moon   Path to economic super power
The intent of this Timeline is to highlight the fact that there are much more than just fights and betrayals and devastations in the  5000 years of history of the Indian sub-continent. It unfurls the story of evolution of the all-inclusive, tolerant, assimilative and dynamic Indian Culture and tradition. It speaks about the extraordinary achievements of humanity over long periods of peace and prosperity - something rarely seen anywhere else in the world.  It speaks about the highs and lows, the successes and failures - each of which played a vital role in shaping up the Indian Culture.
Each dynasty or period is marked with a vertical bar of a particular color. The length of the bar is same as the duration for which the dynasty or period existed. The beginning of any dynasty or period and the related important highlights in different centuries are mentioned in an enclosure that encloses also the associated bar representing the dynasty. For example the Maratha Empire starting in 1600s and stretching till second half of 1700s is depicted by a chocolate-brown bar. The important highlights like rise of Shivaji and the fights with Mughals in 1600s and attaining its peak under the Peshwas in the first half of 1700s are mentioned against the correct centuries in an enclosure that encloses the chocolate-brown bar from top. The enclosure might not neccessarily extend till the end of the dynasty if there is no important event to highlight.
Created by Sudipto Das, Jan '09
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