RV Book Hymn Verse Description Topic Historical Reference
3 53   Kushika (probably Munda) among Aryan offerers Aryan - non Aryan amalgamation Munda contact
1 112   Ashvini helped Karkandhu, Shryata, Vishpala. [All Munda names] Aryan - non Aryan amalgamation Munda contact
4 30   Indra kills Kulitara's son Shambara on lofty mountains. He crushed 100,000 Varcins, like the felly (pradhi) of the wheel of a chariot Aryan - non Aryan conflict Conflicts, Munda contact
3 53   What is the use of cattle in Kikata? They don't pour ashira (mixture of milk and soma), they don't heat vessels (gharma) for preparing soma. Let Indra bring the wealth of Pramaganda, King of Kikata. [Kikata and Pramaganda both Munda names] Aryan - non Aryan conflict Conflict, Munda contact
7 103 9 Frog Hymn: When the frogs croak at the first rain the hot summer ends, also ends the annual course of sun, visarga. [End of annual course of sun points to the end of a year] Astronomy RV date
1 164 2 The elliptical (trinabhi chakra) wheel on which rest all the worlds of being (vishva bhuvan). [trinabhi chakra may refer to the ecliptic] Astronomy Aryan Science & Technology
1 164 3 A seven wheeled chariot driven by seven horses. [May refer to the Saptarshi Mandal, the seven stars of the Ursa Major constellation, which made a perfect circle around Thuban, the pole star in 3rd millennium BC] Astronomy Aryan Science & Technology
10 82   One' beyond the seven Rishis. [May be the pole star (Thuban) beyond the saptarshi mandal  (Ursa Major)] Astronomy Aryan Science & Technology
10 189   Sun is like a powerful bull; it reigns supreme in all the 30 days, dhama or abodes of moon. [Abodes of moon refer to nakshatra] Astronomy Aryan Science & Technology
10 85   Surya's bridal Astronomy, Ritual Aryan Science & Technology
7 18   Battle of Ten Kings. [Aryan fighting against confederation of Aryan & non Aryan people] Battle of Ten Kings Conflicts between Aryan tribes
7 19   Battle of Ten Kings Battle of Ten Kings Conflicts between Aryan tribes
2 15   Indra drinks from trikadru. [kadru (brown Soma vessel) is a BMAC substrate in Indo-Iranian languages] Central Asia connection BMAC
1 84 13 Dadhyach Myth Dadhyach Myth IE Myth
8 46 32 Dasa Balbutha and Taruksha (Munda) have made a gift of 100 camels to the sage. [Implies Dasas and Munda peoples are not always enemies - point to amalgamation of various peoples] Dasa names - offerer Friendsip with enemies
1 104   Anjasi, Kulishi & Virapatni delight Indra Female names  
1 162   Horse & Horse Sacrifice Horse IE trademark
1 163   Horse & Horse Sacrifice Horse IE trademark
1 112   Ashvini helps Rebha, Vandana, Antaka, Bhujyu, Vavya, Prishignu, Purukutsa, Shrutarya, Narya, Aushija, Upastuta, Kali, Shayu, Manu, Atri, Krishanu, Subhara, Adhigru IA names IA names
4 30   Arna, Citraratha, both Arya people killed by Indra on the other side of Sarayu Indra - fighting Aryans Conflicts
2 14   Indra subdues Kutsa, Atithigva & Ayu [Not all non-Aryan Kings] Indra - fighting Aryans Conflicts
1 130 7 Indra shatters 90 forts of Puru (Aryan) and brought Shambara (non Aryan) from mountains Indra - fighting Aryans and non Aryans Aryan Aryan & Aryan non-Aryan conflict
1 32 11 Indra smites Dasa and opens the caves where cows (rays, floods) were imprisoned Indra - fighting Dasas BMAC
1 53 4 Indra scatters Dasyus - Dasa people Indra - fighting Dasas BMAC
6 20   Indra kills Dhuni, Chumuri.  Indra - fighting non IA Conflict
6 26   Indra kills Tugra and Vetasu and makes Tuji strong. He kills the hundred thousand fighting people, kills Shambar on the mountains Indra - fighting non IA Conflict
6 26   To please Dabhiti Indra kills Chumuri, kills 60000 enemies Indra - fighting non IA Conflict
2 12   Shambara (Munda) is discovered on the 40th autumn in his mountain hideouts. [Implicates fightings in mountains, most likely the Hindukush] Indra - fighting non IA Conflict, Munda contact
1 53 7 Indra fights Namuchi Indra - fighting non IA Non Aryan Contact
1 53 8 Indra kills Parnaya, Karanja [Both para Munda names] Indra - fighting non IA Munda contact
1 103   Indra breaks Sushna, Shambara & Kuyava's forts [All Munda names] Indra - fighting non IA Munda contact
2 14   Indra destroys Shambara's 100 ancient or distant (purvi) castles (pura) with his thunderbold (ashman) Indra - fighting non-IA Conflicts
2 14   Indra killed Dhribhika, Urana, Arbuda, Shushna, Pipru, Namuci, Rudhikra. [Pipru may be IA, but the rest names seem to be non-IA] Indra - fighting non-IA Conflicts
1 53 6 Indra kills 10000 Vritra Indra - fighting Vritra BMAC
6 26   Indra helps Dashadyu, brought the lofty chariot (rishva ratha) [reminiscent of Krishna being Arjuna's charioteer] Indra - helping Aryan King  
6 27   To aid Abhyavartin (son of Cayamana, a descendent of Prithu) Indra dismissed the front part (purva) of the troop and the rear part (apara) fled away in fear. Abhyavartin is a liberal and highly honoured emperor (maghava mahyam samrat) who gives bountiful gifts to priests Indra - helping Aryan King  
1 11 5 Indra breaks the cave of Vala, rich in cows. [Cave symbolic representation of strongholds of the rich Panis & Dasas (Daha & Parna of Central Asia) and cows symbol of wealth] Indra - Myth of Vala BMAC
1 32   Indra kills Vritra, the dragon Ahi. [Ahi personification of glacier, frozen water destroyed by Indra to release the captive water. Releasing waters, freeing cows from Vala's cave are similar symbols] Indra - Myth of Vala/Vitra BMAC
4 19   Indra breaks the mountains and the frees the obstructed rivers. The rivers run like  mothers running towards their children. [It's similar to killing Vala and releasing the cow &  of breaking the dams (of the Indus people ??) and releasing the river] Indra - Vala Myth BMAC, Indus Valley
2 11   Indra breaks the mountain like clouds (parvata) and releases the captivated water (ghrita) Indra - Vala Myth BMAC, Indus Valley
2 11   Indra kills Vala, Vritra & dragon Ahi, who captivate the waters, and allows the waters to swell and flow Indra - Vala Myth BMAC, Indus Valley
2 12   Indra frees the dragon and released the seven rivers. [Similar to releasing the cow from Vala's cave (apadha)] Indra - Vala Myth BMAC, Indus Valley
8 12 9 Like rays of Sun Indra consumes Arshasana (Iranian Ersan) Iranian names - enemy East Iranian contact
8 32 2 The strong (ugra) Indra kills the Dasas Sribinda (Munda), Anarshani (Iranian Ersan), Pipru (Aryan name), Ahishuva and set free the waters. [Iranian, Munda and Aryan peoples seen as enemies] Iranian names - enemy East Iranian contact
8 5 37 Kashu (Avestan Kasu) gives 100 camels (ushtra) and 10000 cows to the priest Iranian names - offerer East Iranian contact
8 6 46 Parshu (Persian Parsa) & Tirindira (Tiridates) give 100000 gifts Iranian names - offerer East Iranian contact
4 38 10 Dadhikra (horse) spreads himself over the Five Peoples as Sun lightens the water Pancha Krishti - The Five Peoples of RV Names of tribes
5 53   Mention of the rivers Rasa, Anitabha, Sarayu (Harirud), Kubha (Kabul), Krumu (Kurram), Sindhu (Indus) Rivers - western tributaries of Indus Rivers
7 2 8 Mention of Ila/Ira, Bharati & Saraswati. [Ira may refer to Iran, Bharati to India and Saraswati with 'her kindered Rivers' - Punjab] RV Goddess RV-Avesta connection
1 116 15 Artifical leg given to Vishpala by Ashvini, the doctor twins Science Aryan Science & Technology
10 190   Creation Myth - talks about how the universe was created Science Aryan Science & Technology
10 16 14 Burial, cremation etc. Socio-religious life Aryan rituals
1 32 15 Indra rules the world, containing all as spokes (ara) within the felly (nemi) Spoked Wheel Spoked Wheel
1 62 11 Thoughts ancient with newest lauds, seeking wealth with adoration Unity Aryan Philosophy
10 191   Let's all sit together with the same thought, same resolution, same wish, same mind and pray to the God Unity Aryan Philosophy
10 121   Golden Embryo - Hiranyagarbha