Meaning PIE PII Sanskrit Avestan Persian Latin Greek German Notes
beautiful keubh caubh shubh ziba          
beloved priye pria priya friia peris   Aphrodite   IE Goddess
big, great mega mah mah, magha maz   magnus mega   Magha nakshatra
bird melg marg mriga merega murgh miluus     Murgh-ab - rivers of birds, also wild beast
blink meik mic mish, nimesh     mico     nimesh = unit of time = one blink
bottom bhudhno bhudhna budhna budna bun fundus   bodam  
bread pen pan panasa   nan        
breast psten pstana stana axtana pisten   stethos spunni  
brick   ist ishtaka istiia hist       Central Asian loan word
bright, god, day dieus diau dyau, dyu, div daeva div, dev iuppiter zeus zio Jupiter <- iuppiter <- dieu pater, IE God
bright, shining swaid kshai kshai xaena duruḵẖshān     swit  
broth, juice yous yush yush     ius      
brother bhrater bhratar bhratar bratar biradar frater phrater brouder  
brown bhrun, bhebhru bhabhru babhru babra       bruna babhru - RV composer
brown   kadru kadru   qahd       Central Asian loan word
bull ersn, ersbho arshan, arshabha rishabha arshnauuait     arsen ershn Rishabha - RV composer
buttock klouni crauni shroni sraoni surun clunis      
calf, year wetes, wetso uasta vatsa, vatsara     vetus etos, wetos widder year = movement of cow
camel   ushtra ushtra   ushtur       Central Asian loan word
cattle peku pacu pashu pasu   pecu peko    
chariot roto ratha ratha   rah rota      
clear, bright kait   ketu, citra ciera cihr caelum   heiter Chitra/Spica star nakshatra
cover uer uar vri, var     aperio   waro vavri (RV composer) <- vri
daughter dhugeter dhujhitr duhitar duxoar dukhtar   thugater    
dawn, east eusos ushas ushas, usri ushah   Aurora Eos aust ushas = IE Goddess, also Skt usha, vasar
death neks nac nash   naz nex      
desert   dhanuan dhanvan            
donkey   khar khar   khar       Central Asian loan word
door dhuer dhuar dvar duuar dar fores thura tor  
earth ghem ksham ksham zam zamin humus      
earth plethui pritui prithvi     planus   plataia IE Goddess
eat ed ad ad     edo edo essen atri = eater - RV composer
enemy wergh   vaira            
excited, stiff ghers jharsh harsh, jaharsh jaresti   horreo     jaresti = NE
eye ek ak akshi axi   oculus opthalmos ouga  
father pater patar pitar pitar pidar pater pater fater  
fear tres tras tras tares tars terreo   eres  
fire egnis agni agni hognai   ignis      
foot ped pada pada pada pa pes podi fouz  
fort pla pra pur            
go, come gwem gam, jam gam gemen   qimen   kwemom jamadagni = agni will come
god dieuo daiva deva daeva dev, div dvus, deus      
good, excellent uesu uasu vasu vohu bih   eu wisu vasishtha <- superlative of vasu
grain, barley ieuo iaua yava yauua jaw        
grow, prosper ueldh uardh vridh vared     ortho    
hand ghesto jhanta hasta zasta dast praesto kheir    
head kras cras shira sarah sar cerebrum kare hirni  
heal   bhish bhishaj           Central Asian loan word
high, up ud ud ud, uttara uz us     uz, aus uttara = north (highland in India)
horse ekwos acva ashva aspa aspa equus hippos ehwaz  
how many kwot kati kati caiti   quot     Katya - RV composer
hundred kemtom catam, cata shatam, shata satem sad centum hekaton   source of centum-satem isogloss
king, rich reg raj raj raz rahst rex oregein reich  
lake, sea mar   mira     mare   meer Kash-mir, mira also means mountain
life aiwos   ayu     aeuus      
light leuk roca roca, ruci raocant roz lux leuko licht  
lute   veena veena           Central Asian loan word
man merto marta marta marta mard   morto morto  
many, full pele puru puru, purvi pouru paru plus, plous polu voll Pleiades (Krittika), Lat plenus
marijuana, hemp   bhang bhang   bang       Central Asian loan word
master, lord poti pati pati paiti bud potis posis haupt  
master, lord ar arya arya airyo ariya     ehre Finnish orja meaning slave
metal, copper eios aias ayas aiiah   aes   eisen iron also since AV
moisture ros rasa rasa ranha rasa, raha ros rha   Ancient name of Volga
moon mens, mehns mas, mahas mas ma, mahah mah mensis men mano  
mother mater matar matar matar madar mater meter mouter  
mountain gri gri giri gairi gar   deiros    
mountain agwem agam, ajam aga           agastya, agasti <- aga
move, stir kyew cyaw cyava shiiauu shav cieo, civi kio, kion   upacyava, apacyava - body movements
mustard   sinshap sarshap   sarshaf        
navel nebh nabh nabhya, nabhi naba, nafa naf umbilicus omphalos nabel center of wheel
night ksep kshap kshap shapan shab        
night noght nakta nakta     nox, noctis nuktos nacht  
nine neun naua nava nauua   novem ena niwun nodha (nine fold): RV composer
old, senior sena sana sana hana   senex     Sanaka - RV enemies, Vritra
palm, hand palam, palan   pani perena   palma palama fulmo Skt. Pani is different from Pani tribe
pigeon   kapauta kapota   kabutar       Central Asian loan word
pillar   sthuna sthuna   sutun       Central Asian loan word
pressed juice soumo sauma soma haoma          
priest gheuter jhautar hotar zaotar          
protector peuson pushan pushan           RV God: protects and furthers herds
red reudh rohita rohita raodita   ruber ereutho rauda Rohini <- Rohita nakshatra
rhinoceros   kartka kharga   karg        
right, south dekshino dakshina dakshina dashina dashn dexter deksio    
river eke ap ap   ab aqua    aha Ob river in Russia
river, stream, fluid danus danu danu danu danu danus damos   Don, Dneiper, Donnets, Danube rivers
rock, cliff pels   pashan, pashi       pella    
rock, stone kal   shila            
sand, clay mel mar mrit, maru Mouru      blenno   maru also means mountain in Sanskrit
scatter, divide ker, krey   krri, krinoti     cerno krino rein  
sculptor, creator tuerk turshtar tvastar qbrs         makes Vajra for Indra
seed   bij bij   bazr       Central Asian loan word
sheep ewi aui avi     ovis ois ouwi  
shine bhreg bhraj bhraj   baraz-dan       Bhrigu <- bhraj
shout, yell krawek   krosha xravsa khuros   krauga schrei  
sit sed sad sad had, shasat nishastan sedeo, sedi hizdo sitzen  
sleep ses sas sas hahm         sasa - RV composer
snake eguhi ajhi ahi azi         Vedic demon, serpent
son sunu sunu sunu hunu     nios sunu  
song som saman saman       humno    
spindle, axle kertro carttra cattra           FU loan word kehra
spoke ero ara ara           flames are the spoke of fire
spring weser wasar vasar, vasanta   bahar ver ear    
stomach udero udara udara udaras   uterus otheros wanast  
stone, thunder ekmon acman ashman, ashna asman asman   akmon   often means cloud, heaven
strong bhrigh bhrijh brih barez buland     berg brihaspati <- brih + pati
strong yend indra indra indra     hadro   RV God, Hadron particle of Physics
strong, hard kert   kratu xratu xirad   kratos hart kavikratu - Agni
strong, skill deks daksha daksha     dexter doxa    
stronghold pla pra pur            
sun sehwel suhar svar, surya huar khwar sol helios sonne  
tongue dighue jijhua jihva hizva zaban lingua   zunge  
top, peak   bhrishti bhrishti baresti       burusti burusti = bristle, baresti = NW
tortoise   kashyap kacchap   kashaf       Central Asian loan word
tree drew daru, taru daru dauru     doru trewo ~ danda (after retroflection)
twin yem yama yama yaema   geminus     Gemini constellation
Varuna welnos varnas varuna       Uranos   IE God
village weik vic vish vis   vicus oikos    
war semer hamar samar            
warrior meilets   melaka     miles      
water wedor udra udra   darya   hudor wasser  
wheel keklo cakra cakra caxra carkh colus kuklos    
white kueit cuait sveta spaeta saped        
win uen uan van van   Venus   gewinnen  
wind uento uata vata vata bad uentus     RV God
winter gheimen jhaiman heman, hima zaen dai heims kheima    
wolf ulkuo urka vrika vehrka warqa lupus lukos wolf Av. vehrkan = Gorgan; Skr Varkanya
woman gen jan jani jaini zan   gyne quena  
work, skill lab rabh rabh, ribhu     labor     ribhu, bhrigu - artist
yoke, harness ieug, yug iaug yuj yuj juft iugera zux joch yojana < yuj